Pastore dell'Asia Centrale . Alabay
Central Asia is a region which stretches Sex Asia centrale the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia Sex Asia centrale the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of KazakhstanKyrgyzstanTajikistanTurkmenistanand Uzbekistan.
After expansion by Turkic peoplesCentral Asia also became the homeland for the KazakhsUzbeksTatarsTurkmen Sex Asia centrale, Kyrgyzand Uyghurs ; Turkic languages largely replaced the Iranian languages spoken in the area. Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. From the midth century until almost the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia Sex Asia centrale part of the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Sex Asia centraleboth Sex Asia centrale -majority countries, and the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians andUkrainians.
Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan pop. The idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions.
Historically built political geography and geoculture are two significant parameters widely used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia. The most limited definition was the official Sex Asia centrale of the Soviet Unionwhich defined Middle Asia as consisting solely of UzbekistanTurkmenistanTajikistanand Kyrgyzstanhence omitting Kazakhstan. This definition was also often used outside the USSR during this period. Soon after Sex Asia centrale dissolution of the Soviet Union inthe leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as Sex Asia centrale original four included by the Soviets.
Since then, Sex Asia centrale has become the most common definition of Central Asia. An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, and in particular, areas populated by Eastern TurkicEastern Iranianor Mongolian peoples.
Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may also be included. The Tibetans and Ladakhi are also included. Insofar, most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the Sex Asia centrale region. Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan.
Central Asia is an extremely large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains Tian Shanvast deserts Kyzyl KumTaklamakanand especially treeless, grassy steppes. The vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe.
Much of the land of Central Asia is too dry or too rugged for farming. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities.
Major bodies Sex Asia centrale water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhashboth of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that also includes the Caspian Sea. Both of these bodies of water have shrunk significantly in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes.
Water is an extremely valuable resource in arid Central Sex Asia centrale and can lead to rather significant international disputes. Central Asia is bounded on the north by the forests of Siberia. The northern half of Central Asia Kazakhstan is the middle part of the Eurasian steppe. Westward the Kazakh steppe merges into the Russian-Ukrainian steppe and eastward into the steppes and deserts of Dzungaria and Mongolia.
Southward Sex Asia centrale land becomes increasingly dry and the nomadic population increasingly thin. The south supports areas of dense population and cities wherever irrigation is possible. The main irrigated areas are along the eastern mountains, along the Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers and along the north flank of the Kopet Dagh near the Persian border.
Two projections of the Tian Shan create three "bays" along the eastern mountains. The largest, in the north, Sex Asia centrale eastern Kazakhstan, traditionally called Jetysu or Semirechye which contains Lake Balkhash. Sex Asia centrale the center is the small but densely-populated Ferghana valley.
In the south is Bactrialater called Tocharistan, which is bounded on the south by the Hindu Sex Asia centrale mountains of Afghanistan. Both flow northwest into the Aral Sea. North of the Oxus is the less-famous but equally important Zarafshan River which waters the great trading cities of Bokhara and Samarkand.
The other great commercial city was Tashkent northwest of the mouth of the Ferghana valley. The land immediately north of the Oxus was called Transoxiana and also Sogdiaespecially when referring to the Sogdian merchants who dominated the silk road trade.
To the east, Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin were united into the Chinese province of Xinjiang about Caravans from China usually went along the north or south side of the Tarim basin and joined at Kashgar before crossing the mountains northwest to Ferghana or southwest to Bactria. A minor branch of the silk road went north of the Tian Shan through Dzungaria and Zhetysu before Sex Asia centrale southwest near Tashkent. Nomadic migrations usually moved from Mongolia through Dzungaria before turning southwest to conquer the settled lands or continuing west toward Europe.
Khorasan meant approximately northeast Persia and northern Afghanistan. Margiana was the region around Merv. To the southwest, across the Kopet Dagh, lies Persia. From here Persian and Islamic civilization penetrated Central Asia and dominated its high culture until the Russian conquest.
In the southeast is the route to India. In early Sex Asia centrale Buddhism spread north Sex Asia centrale throughout much of history warrior kings and tribes would move southeast to establish their rule in northern India. Most nomadic conquerors entered from the northeast. After western civilization in its Russian and Soviet form penetrated from the northwest. Because Central Asia is not buffered by a large body of water, temperature fluctuations are often severe, excluding the hot, sunny summer months.
In most areas the climate is dry and continental, with hot summers and cool to cold winters, with occasional Sex Asia centrale. Outside high-elevation areas, the climate is mostly semi-arid to arid. In lower elevations, summers are hot with blazing sunshine. Average monthly precipitation is extremely low from July to September, rises in autumn October and November and is highest in March or April, followed by swift drying in May and June.
Winds can be strong, producing dust storms sometimes, especially toward the end of the dry season in September and October. Specific cities that exemplify Central Asian climate patterns include Tashkent and SamarkandUzbekistan, AshgabatTurkmenistan, and DushanbeTajikistan, the last of these representing one of the wettest climates in Central Asia, with an average annual precipitation of over 22 inches.
The largest biomes in Central Asia are the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Central Asia also contains the montane grasslands and shrublandsdeserts and xeric shrublands as well as temperate coniferous forests biomes. Although, during the golden age of Orientalism the place of Central Asia in the world history was marginalized, contemporary historiography has rediscovered the "centrality" of the Central Asia. The aridness of the region made agriculture difficult, and its distance from the sea cut it off from much trade.
Thus, few major cities developed in the region; instead, the area was for millennia dominated by the nomadic horse peoples of the steppe. Relations between the steppe nomads and the settled people in and around Central Asia were long marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfareand the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent people in the world, limited only by their lack of internal unity.
Any internal unity that was achieved was most probably due to the influence of the Silk Roadwhich traveled along Central Asia. Periodically, great leaders or changing conditions would organize several tribes into one force and create an almost unstoppable power. During pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, southern Central Asia was inhabited predominantly by speakers of Iranian languages.
The well-preserved Tarim mummies with Caucasoid features have been found in the Tarim Basin. The main migration of Turkic peoples occurred between the 5th and 10th centuries, when they spread across most of Central Asia. The Tang Chinese were defeated Sex Asia centrale the Arabs at the battle of Sex Asia centrale inmarking the end Sex Asia centrale the Tang Dynasty's western expansion.
During the 13th and 14th centuries, the Sex Asia centrale conquered and ruled the largest contiguous empire in recorded history. Most of Central Asia fell under the control of the Chagatai Khanate. The dominance of the nomads ended in the 16th century, as firearms allowed Sex Asia centrale peoples to gain control of the region.
RussiaChinaand other powers expanded into the region and had captured the bulk of Central Sex Asia centrale by the end of the 19th century. Mongolia remained independent but became a Soviet satellite state. The Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much industrialization and construction of infrastructurebut also the suppression of local cultures, hundreds of thousands of deaths from failed collectivization programs, and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems.
Soviet authorities Sex Asia centrale millions of people, including entire nationalities,  from western areas of the Sex Asia centrale to Central Asia and Siberia. With the collapse of the Soviet Unionfive countries gained independence. In nearly all the new states, former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen. None of the new republics could be considered functional democracies in the early days of independence, although in recent years KyrgyzstanKazakhstan and Mongolia Sex Asia centrale made further progress towards more open societies, unlike UzbekistanTajikistanand Sex Asia centralewhich have maintained many Soviet-style repressive tactics.
At the crossroads of Asia, shamanistic practices live alongside Buddhism. Thus, Yama Sex Asia centrale, Lord of Death, was revered in Tibet as a spiritual guardian and judge. Mongolian Buddhism, in particular, was influenced by Tibetan Buddhism. The Qianlong Emperor of Qing China in the 18th century was Tibetan Buddhist and would sometimes travel from Beijing to other cities for personal religious worship.
Central Asia also has an indigenous form of improvisational oral poetry that is over years old. It is principally practiced in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by akynslyrical improvisationists. They engage in lyrical battlesthe aitysh or the alym Sex Asia centrale. The tradition arose out of early Sex Asia centrale oral historians.
They are usually accompanied by a stringed instrument —in Kyrgyzstan, a three-stringed komuzand in Kazakhstan, a similar two-stringed instrument, the dombra. Upon his arrival to Khanate of KhivaPenner shared his photography skills with a local student Khudaybergen Divanov, who later became the founder of Uzbek photography. Some also learn to sing the ManasKyrgyzstan's epic poem those Sex Asia centrale learn the Manas exclusively but do not improvise are Sex Asia centrale manaschis. During Soviet rule, akyn performance was Sex Asia centrale by the authorities and subsequently Sex Asia centrale in popularity.
With the fall of the Soviet Union, it has enjoyed a resurgence, although akyns still do use their art to campaign for political candidates. A The Washington Post article proposed a similarity between the improvisational art of akyns and modern freestyle rap performed in the West.
As a consequence of Russian colonization, European fine arts — painting, sculpture and graphics Sex Asia centrale have developed in Central Asia. The first years of the Sex Asia centrale regime saw the appearance of modernism, which took inspiration from the Russian avant-garde movement. Until the s, Central Asian arts had developed along with general tendencies of Soviet arts.