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Despite initially governing the Soviet Union as part of a collective leadershiphe eventually consolidated power to become the country's de facto dictator by the s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of MarxismStalin formalised these ideas as Marxism—Leninismwhile his own policies are known as Stalinism. He edited the party's newspaper, Pravdaand raised funds for Vladimir Lenin 's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings, and protection rackets.
Repeatedly arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power during the October Revolution and created a one-party state under Lenin's newly renamed Communist Party, Stalin joined its governing Politburo. Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing Quadri anime trio Soviet Union's establishment inStalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's death. Under Stalin, " Socialism in One Country " became a central tenet of the party's dogma.
Through the Five-Year Plansthe country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialisationcreating a centralised command economy. This led to significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the Quadri anime trio of — To eradicate accused " enemies of the working class ", Stalin instituted the " Great Purge ", in which over a million were imprisoned and at leastexecuted between and Byhe had complete personal control over the Quadri anime trio and state.
Stalin's government promoted Marxism—Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported European anti-fascist movements during the s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. Init signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germanyresulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland.
Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as global superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U. Stalin led his country through the post-war reconstruction, during which it Quadri anime trio a nuclear weapon in In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the doctors' plot.
After Stalin's death in he was eventually succeeded by Nikita Khrushchevwho denounced his predecessor and initiated the de-Stalinisation of Soviet society. Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist—Leninist movement which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union inStalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major Quadri anime trio power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been widely condemned for overseeing mass repressionsethnic cleansingdeportationshundreds of thousands of executions, and famines which killed millions.
Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori then part of the Russian Empire and home to a mix Quadri anime trio Georgian, Armenian, Russian, and Jewish communities. Besarion was a shoemaker and owned his own workshop;  it was initially a financial success, but later fell into decline. In AugustStalin enrolled in the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflisenabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate.
Stalin joined a forbidden book club at the school;  he was particularly influenced by Nikolay Chernyshevsky 's pro-revolutionary novel What Is To Be Done? In OctoberStalin began work as a meteorologist at a Tiflis observatory. That month, Stalin travelled to the port city of Batumi. In Januarygovernment troops massacred protesters in Saint Petersburg.
Unrest soon Quadri anime trio across the Russian Empire in what came to be known as the Revolution of Stalin married Kato Svanidze in a church ceremony at Senaki in July His gang ambushed the armed convoy in Yerevan Square with gunfire and home-made bombs. Around 40 people were killed, but all of his gang escaped alive. In MarchStalin was arrested and interned in Bailov Prison in Baku  There, he led the Quadri anime trio Bolsheviks, organised discussion groups, and ordered the killing of suspected informants.
Still in Vologda, Stalin agreed, remaining a Central Committee member for the rest of his life. In Mayhe was arrested again and imprisoned in the Shpalerhy Prisonbefore being sentenced to three years exile in Siberia. After the October Duma elections resulted in six Bolsheviks Quadri anime trio six Mensheviks Quadri anime trio elected, Stalin wrote articles calling for reconciliation between the two Marxist factions, for which he was criticised by Lenin.
Stalin",  a name he had been using since In FebruaryStalin was Quadri anime trio while back in Saint Petersburg. The Russian Empire became a de facto republic, headed by a Provisional Government dominated by liberals.
Stalin helped organise the July Days uprising, an armed display of strength by Bolshevik supporters. Stalin and fellow senior Bolshevik Leon Trotsky both endorsed Lenin's plan of action, but it was initially opposed by Kamenev and other party members. On 24 October, police raided the Bolshevik newspaper offices, smashing machinery and presses; Stalin Quadri anime trio some of this equipment to continue his activities.
Having dropped his editorship of Pravda Stalin was appointed the People's Commissar for Nationalities. There, they based themselves in the Kremlin ; it was here that Stalin, Trotsky, Sverdlov, and Lenin lived. After the Bolsheviks seized power, both right and left-wing armies rallied against them, generating the Russian Civil War.
In DecemberStalin was sent to Perm to lead an inquiry into how Alexander Kolchak 's White forces had been able to decimate Red troops based there. The Bolsheviks had won the civil war by late Following earlier clashes between Polish and Russian troops, the Polish—Soviet War broke Quadri anime trio in earlywith the Poles invading Ukraine and taking Kiev. Stalin had cautioned against this; he believed that nationalism would lead the Polish working-classes to support their government's war effort.
He also believed that the Red Army was ill-prepared to conduct an offensive war and Quadri anime trio it would give White Armies a chance to resurface Quadri anime trio CrimeaQuadri anime trio reigniting the civil war. The Soviet government sought to bring neighbouring states under its domination; in February it invaded the Menshevik-governed Georgia while in AprilStalin ordered the Red Army into Turkestan to reassert Russian state control.
Stalin's native Caucasus posed a particular Quadri anime trio due to its highly multi-ethnic mix. After the civil war, workers' strikes and peasant uprisings broke out across Russia, largely in opposition to Sovnarkom's food requisitioning project; as an antidote, Lenin introduced market-oriented reforms: the New Economic Policy NEP.
Although concerns were expressed that adopting this new post on top of his others would overstretch his workload and give him too much power, Quadri anime trio was appointed to the position. In Maya massive stroke left Lenin partially paralyzed.
They also disagreed on the nature of the Soviet state. Lenin called for the country to be renamed the "Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia", reflecting his desire for expansion across the two continents. Stalin believed this would encourage independence sentiment among non-Russians, instead arguing Quadri anime trio ethnic minorities would be content as "autonomous republics" within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
Their differences also became personal; Lenin was particularly angered when Stalin was rude to his wife Krupskaya during a telephone conversation.
These criticised Stalin's rude manners and excessive power, suggesting that Stalin should be removed from the position of Quadri anime trio Secretary. Lenin died in January Embarrassed by its contents, Stalin offered his resignation as General Secretary; this act of humility saved him and he was retained in the position.
As General Secretary, Stalin had had a free hand in making appointments to his own staff, implanting his loyalists throughout the party and administration. In the wake of Lenin's death, various protagonists emerged in the struggle to become his successor: alongside Stalin was Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, Alexei Rykovand Mikhail Tomsky. In lateStalin moved against Kamenev and Zinoviev, removing their supporters from key positions.
Stalin was now the party's supreme leader,  although he was not the head of governmenta task he entrusted to key ally Vyacheslav Molotov. InStalin published On Questions of Leninism. It nevertheless clashed with established Bolshevik views that socialism could not be established in one country but could only be achieved globally through the process of world revolution. Instead, the KMT repressed the Communists and a civil war broke out between the two sides. In early Stalin travelled to Novosibirsk Quadri anime trio, where he alleged that kulaks were hoarding their grain and ordered that the kulaks be arrested and their grain confiscated, with Stalin bringing much of the area's grain Quadri anime trio to Moscow with him in February.
Inthe Politburo announced the mass collectivisation of agriculture establishing both kolkhozy collective farms and sovkhoz state farms. Armed peasant uprisings against dekulakisation and collectivisation broke out in Ukraine, northern Caucasus, southern Russia, and central Asia, reaching their apex in March ; these were suppressed by the Red Army.
By mid he was unable to rally sufficient support in Quadri anime trio party to oppose the Quadri anime trio. Officially, Quadri anime trio Soviet Union had replaced the "irrationality" and "wastefulness" of a market economy with a planned economy organised along a long-term, precise, and scientific framework; in reality, Soviet economics were based on ad hoc commandments issued from the centre, often to make short-term targets. Many of the major construction projects, including the White Sea-Baltic Canal and the Moscow Metrowere constructed largely through forced labour.
InStalin declared that class war between the Quadri anime trio and their enemies would intensify as socialism developed. Stalin desired a " cultural revolution ",  entailing both the creation of a culture for the "masses" and the wider dissemination of Quadri anime trio elite culture.
Throughout the s and beyond, Stalin placed a high priority on foreign policy. Wellsboth of whom were impressed with him. Stalin faced problems Quadri anime trio his family life. Inhis son Yakov unsuccessfully attempted suicide; his failure earned Stalin's contempt. Within the Soviet Union, there was widespread civic disgruntlement against Stalin's government.
The Soviet Union experienced a major famine which peaked in the winter of —33 ;  between five and seven million people died. In —36, Stalin oversaw a new constitution; its dramatic liberal features were designed as propaganda weapons, for all power rested in the hands of Stalin and his Politburo.
Seeking improved international relations, in the Soviet Union secured membership of the League of Nationsof which it had previously been excluded. When the Spanish Civil War broke out in Julythe Soviets sent aircraft and tanks to the left-wing Republican faction ; these Quadri anime trio accompanied by Soviet troops and 42, members of the International Brigades set up by the Communist International. Stalin often gave conflicting signals regarding state repression.
Stalin orchestrated the arrest of many former opponents in the Communist Party as well as sitting members of the Central Committee : denounced as Western-backed mercenaries, many were imprisoned or exiled internally. During the s and s, NKVD groups assassinated Quadri anime trio and opponents abroad;  in AugustTrotsky was assassinated in Mexico, eliminating the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership.
Repressions further Quadri anime trio in December and remained at a high level until Novembera period known as the Great Purge. Stalin initiated all key decisions during the Terror, personally directing many of its operations and taking an interest in their implementation.
The real motivation for the terror, according to Harris, was an over-exaggerated fear of counterrevolution. As a Marxist—Leninist, Stalin expected an inevitable conflict between competing capitalist powers; after Nazi Germany annexed Austria and then part of Czechoslovakia inStalin recognised a war was looming.
As Britain and France seemed unwilling to commit to an alliance with the Quadri anime trio Union, Stalin saw a better deal with the Germans. The Soviets further demanded parts of eastern Finland, but the Finnish government refused. The speed of the German victory over and occupation of France in mid took Stalin by surprise.
Plans were made for the Soviet government to evacuate to Kuibyshevalthough Stalin decided to remain in Moscow, believing his flight would damage troop morale. Against the advice of Zhukov and other generals, Stalin emphasised attack over defence.