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An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either sesso gay americana all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Encyclopedias have existed for around 2, years and have evolved considerably during that time as regards to language written in a major international or a vernacular languagesize few or many volumesintent presentation of a global or a limited range of knowledgecultural perceptions authoritative, ideological, didactic, sesso gay americanaauthorship qualifications, stylereadership education level, background, interests, capabilitiesand the technologies available for their production and distribution hand-written manuscripts, small or large print runs, internet production.
As a valued source of reliable information compiled by experts, printed versions found a prominent place in libraries, schools and other educational institutions. The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 21st century has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship, readership, and variety of encyclopedia entries and called into question the idea of what an encyclopedia is [ citation needed ] and the relevance of applying to such dynamic productions the traditional criteria for assembling and evaluating print encyclopedias.
Diderot . Because of this compounded word, fifteenth century readers and since have often, and incorrectly, thought that the Roman authors Quintillian and Pliny described an ancient genre. In the sixteenth century there was a level of ambiguity as to how to use this new word. As several titles illustrate, there was not a settled sesso gay americana about its spelling nor its status as a noun. There have been two examples of the oldest vernacular use of the compounded word.
In approximatelyFranciscus Puccius wrote a letter to Politianus thanking him for his Miscellaneacalling it an encyclopedia. Several encyclopedias have names that include the suffix -p a ediato mark the text as belonging to the genre of encyclopedias. An example is Banglapedia on sesso gay americana relevant for Bangladesh.
The modern encyclopedia was developed from the dictionary in the 18th century. Historically, both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been sesso gay americana and written by well-educated, well-informed content expertsbut they are significantly different in structure.
A dictionary sesso gay americana a linguistic work which primarily focuses on alphabetical listing of words and their definitions. Synonymous words and those related by the subject matter are to be found scattered around the dictionary, giving no obvious place for in-depth treatment.
Thus, a dictionary typically provides limited informationanalysis or background for the word defined. While it may offer a definition, it may leave the reader lacking in understanding the meaning, significance or limitations of a sesso gay americanaand how the term relates to a broader field of knowledge.
An encyclopedia is, theoretically, not written in order to convince, although one of its goals is indeed to convince its reader of its own veracity.
To address those needs, an encyclopedia article is typically not limited to simple definitions, and is not limited to defining an individual word, but provides a more extensive meaning for a subject or discipline. In addition to defining and listing synonymous terms for the topic, the article is able to treat the topic's more extensive meaning in more depth and convey the most relevant accumulated knowledge on that subject.
An encyclopedia article also often includes many maps and illustrationsas well as bibliography and statistics. Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, and its method of production:. Some works entitled "dictionaries" are actually similar to encyclopedias, sesso gay americana those concerned with a particular field such as the Dictionary of the Middle Agesthe Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Shipsand Black's Law Dictionary.
The Macquarie DictionaryAustralia's national dictionary, became an encyclopedic dictionary after its first edition in recognition of the use of proper nouns in common communication, and the words derived from such proper nouns.
There are some broad differences between encyclopedias and dictionaries. Most sesso gay americana, encyclopedia articles are longer, fuller and more thorough than entries in sesso gay americana general-purpose dictionaries. Generally speaking, dictionaries provide linguistic information about words themselves, while encyclopedias focus more on the thing for which those words stand. As such, dictionary entries are not fully translatable into other languages, but encyclopedia articles can be.
In practice, however, the distinction is not concrete, as there is no clear-cut difference between factual, "encyclopedic" information and linguistic information such as appears in dictionaries. Information in traditional encyclopedias can be assessed by measures related to such quality dimension as authoritycompletenessformatobjectivitystyletimeliness and uniqueness.
Encyclopedias have progressed from written form in antiquity, to print in modern times. Today they can also be distributed and displayed electronically. One of the earliest encyclopedic works to have survived to modern times is the Naturalis Historiae of Pliny the Eldera Roman statesman living in the first century AD.
He compiled a work of 37 chapters covering natural history, architecture, medicine, geography, geology, and other aspects of the world around him. He stated in the preface that he had compiled 20, facts from works by over authors, and added many others from his own experience. The work was published around AD 77—79, although Pliny probably never finished editing the work before his death in the eruption of Vesuvius in AD Isidore of Sevilleone of the greatest scholars of the early Middle Agesis widely recognized for writing the first encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, the Etymologiae The Etymologies or Origines aroundin which he compiled a sizable portion of the learning available at his time, both ancient and contemporary.
The work has chapters in 20 volumes, and is valuable because of the quotes and fragments of texts by other authors that would have been lost had he not collected them. The most popular encyclopedia of the Sesso gay americana Age was the De universo or De rerum naturis by Rabanus Mauruswritten about ; it was based on Etymologiae. The encyclopedia of Sudaa massive 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia, had 30 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers.
The text was arranged alphabetically with some slight deviations from common vowel order and place in the Greek alphabet. The early Muslim compilations of knowledge in sesso gay americana Middle Ages included many comprehensive works. Also notable are works sesso gay americana universal history or sociology from Asharitesal-Tabrial-MasudiTabari 's History of the Prophets and KingsIbn Rustahal-Athirand Ibn Khaldunwhose Muqadimmah contains cautions regarding trust in written records that remain wholly applicable today.
The enormous encyclopedic work in China of the Four Great Books of Songcompiled by the 11th century AD during the early Song dynasty —was a massive literary undertaking for the time. The last encyclopedia of the four, the Prime Tortoise of the Record Bureauamounted to 9. The 'period of the encyclopedists' spanned from the tenth to seventeenth centuries, during which the government of China employed hundreds of scholars to assemble massive encyclopedias.
In late medieval Europe, several authors had the ambition of compiling the sum of human knowledge in a certain field or overall, for example Bartholomew of Sesso gay americanaVincent of BeauvaisRadulfus ArdensSydracBrunetto LatiniGiovanni da Sangiminiano, Pierre Bersuire. Some were women, like Hildegard of Bingen and Herrad of Landsberg.
Both were written in the middle of the 13th century. No medieval encyclopedia bore the title Encyclopaedia — they were often called On nature De natura, De naturis rerumMirror Speculum maius, Speculum universaleSesso gay americana Trésor.
Medieval encyclopedias were all hand-copied and thus available mostly to wealthy patrons or monastic men of learning; they were expensive, and usually sesso gay americana for those extending knowledge rather than those using it. During the Renaissancethe creation of printing allowed a wider diffusion of encyclopedias and every scholar could have his or her own copy.
This work followed the traditional scheme of liberal arts. However, Valla added the translation of ancient Greek works on mathematics firstly by Archimedesnewly discovered and translated. The Margarita Philosophica by Gregor Reischprinted inwas a complete encyclopedia explaining the seven liberal arts. The first work titled in this way was the Encyclopedia orbisque doctrinarum, hoc est omnium artium, scientiarum, ipsius philosophiae index ac divisio written by Johannes Aventinus in The English physician and philosopher, Sir Thomas Browne used the word 'encyclopaedia' in in the preface to the reader to define his Pseudodoxia Epidemicaa major work of the 17th-century scientific revolution.
Browne structured his encyclopaedia upon the time-honoured scheme of the Renaissance, the so-called 'scale of creation' which ascends through the mineral, vegetable, animal, human, planetary, and cosmological worlds.
Pseudodoxia Epidemica was a European best-seller, translated into French, Dutch, and German as well as Latin it went through sesso gay americana fewer than five editions, each revised and augmented, the last edition appearing in Financial, commercial, legal, and intellectual factors changed the sesso gay americana of encyclopedias. During the Renaissancemiddle classes had more time sesso gay americana read and encyclopedias helped them to learn more.
Publishers wanted to increase their output so some countries like Germany started selling books missing alphabetical sections, to publish faster. Also, publishers could not afford all the resources by themselves, so multiple sesso gay americana would come together with their resources to create better encyclopedias. When publishing at the same sesso gay americana became financially impossible, they turned to subscriptions and serial publications.
This was risky for publishers because they had to find people that would pay all upfront sesso gay americana make payments. When this worked, capital would rise and there would be a steady income for encyclopedias.
Later, rivalry grew, causing copyright to occur due to weak underdeveloped sesso gay americana. Some publishers would copy another publisher's work to produce an encyclopedia faster and cheaper so consumers did not have to pay a lot and they would sell more. Encyclopedias made it to where middle-class citizens could basically have a small library in their own house. Europeans were becoming more curious about their society around them causing them to revolt against their government.
The beginnings of the modern idea of the general-purpose, widely distributed printed encyclopedia precede the 18th century encyclopedists. Chambers, infollowed sesso gay americana earlier lead of John Harris's Lexicon Technicum of sesso gay americana later editions see also below ; this work was by its title and content "A Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves".
Popular and affordable encyclopedias such as Harmsworth's Universal Encyclopaedia and the Children's Encyclopaedia appeared in the early s. In the United States, the s and s saw the introduction of several large popular encyclopedias, often sold on installment plans.
The best known of these were World Book and Funk and Wagnalls. As many as 90 percent were sold door to door. Jack Lynch says in his book Sesso gay americana Could Look It Up that encyclopedia salespeople were so common that they became the butt of jokes. The second half of the 20th century also saw the proliferation of specialized encyclopedias that compiled topics in specific fields.
This trend has continued. Encyclopedias of at least one volume in size now exist for most if not all academic disciplinesincluding such narrow topics such as bioethics. By the late 20th century, encyclopedias were being published on CD-ROMs for use with personal computers. Microsoft 's Encartapublished between andwas a landmark example as it had no printed equivalent.
Articles were supplemented with both video and audio files as well as numerous high-quality images. InJimmy Wales and Larry Sanger launched Wikipediaa multilingual, open-sourcefree online encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. As of Februaryit had 18 billion page views and nearly million unique visitors each month.
Many academics, historians, teachers, and journalists reject Wikipedia as a reliable source of information, and Wikipedia is itself not a reliable source according to its own standards because of its openly editable wiki model. There are several much smaller, usually more specialized, encyclopedias on various themes, sometimes dedicated to a specific geographic region or time period.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the type of reference sesso gay americana. For other uses, see Encyclopedia disambiguation. Indeed, the purpose of an encyclopedia is to collect knowledge disseminated around the globe; to set forth its general system to the men with whom we live, and transmit it to those who will come after us, so that the work of preceding centuries will not become useless to the centuries sesso gay americana come; and so that our offspring, becoming better instructed, will at the same time become more virtuous sesso gay americana happy, and that sesso gay americana should not die without having rendered a service to the human sesso gay americana in the future years to come.
Main article: History of encyclopedias. Bibliography of encyclopedias Biographical dictionary Encyclopedic knowledge Encyclopedism Fictitious entry History of science and technology Lexicography Library science Lists of encyclopedias Thesaurus Speculum literature.
Archived from the original on August 3, Glossary of Library Terms. Retrieved on: November 17, Dictionary of Lexicography.