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It had five climate zones: tundrataigasteppesdesert and mountains. Inafter a civil war ending in the Bolsheviks' victory, the USSR was formed by a treaty which united the RussianTranscaucasianUkrainian and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mids. Stalin formalized the Communist Party's ideology of Marxism—Leninism and replaced the market economy with a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization.
During this period, rapid economic development resulted in dramatic improvements in the average standard of living, particularly in urban areas. In addition to drought, which was a Sesso Russia 2014 factor in a long history of Sesso Russia 2014 occurring famines in the regionagricultural collectivization contributed to a major famine incausing millions of deaths. Political paranoia fermented, Sesso Russia 2014 after the rise of the Nazis in Germany Sesso Russia 2014culminating in the Great PurgeSesso Russia 2014 which hundreds of thousands of persons accused of spying or sabotage were arrested and executed without trial.
On 23 Augustafter unsuccessful efforts to form an anti-fascist alliance with Western powers,  the Soviets signed the non-aggression agreement with Nazi Germany. In JuneGermany invaded the Soviet Unionopening the most extensive and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet Sesso Russia 2014 accounted for the highest proportion of the war in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over the Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk. In most of the territories occupied by the Red Army after its westward advance, local communists assumed power and formed governments allied with the USSR.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves led to increased tensions with the United States -led Western Blocknown as the Cold War. Stalin died in and was eventually succeeded by Nikita Khrushchevwho in denounced Sesso Russia 2014 and began a period of liberal reforms known as de-Stalinization. The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, which was among the many factors that led to his removal in In the early s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet—Afghan War in Inthe last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachevsought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost openness and perestroika restructuring.
These policies caused political instability arising from nationalist and separatist movements. InSoviet-allied states in Eastern Europe were overthrown in a wave of revolutions which ended communist rule. As part of an attempt to prevent the country's Sesso Russia 2014, a referendum was held on Marchboycotted by three republics, that resulted in a majority Sesso Russia 2014 the preservation of the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was greatly diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin 's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état by party hardliners. In lateGorbachev resigned, and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the union. The remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states. The Soviet Union produced many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite Sesso Russia 2014, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus.
The country had the world's second-largest economy and the largest standing military in the world. The word sovietnik means "councillor". For example, in the Russian Empire the Sesso Russia 2014 Councilwhich functioned from towas referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of In some cases, due to the length of its name, the state was referred to as the Soviet Union or the USSR, primarily when used in the Western media.
It was also informally called Russia and its citizens Russians though that was technically incorrect since Russia was only one of the republics. The European portion accounted for a quarter of the country's area and was the cultural and economic center. The eastern part in Asia extended to the Pacific Ocean to the east and Afghanistan to the south, and, Sesso Russia 2014 some areas in Central Asia Sesso Russia 2014, was much less populous.
Two-thirds of it was a coastline. Across the Bering Strait was the United States. The USSR also included most of the world's Sesso Russia 2014 lakes; the Caspian Sea shared with Iranand Lake Baikalthe world's largest and deepest freshwater lake that is also an internal body of water in Russia. Modern revolutionary activity in the Russian Empire began with the Decembrist revolt. Although serfdom was abolished init was done on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to encourage revolutionaries.
A parliament—the State Duma —was established in after the Russian Revolution ofbut Tsar Nicholas II resisted attempts to move from absolute to a constitutional monarchy. Social unrest continued and was aggravated during World War I by military defeat and food shortages in major cities. A spontaneous popular Sesso Russia 2014 in Petrogradin response to the wartime decay of Russia's economy and morale, culminated in the February Revolution and the toppling of Nicholas II and the imperial government on March The tsarist autocracy was replaced by the Russian Provisional Government, which intended to conduct elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and to continue fighting on the side of the Entente in World War I.
At the same time, workers' councilsknown in Russian as " Soviets ", sprang up across the country. The Bolsheviksled by Vladimir Leninpushed for socialist revolution in the Soviets and on the streets. On 7 Novemberthe Red Guards stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd, ending the rule of the Provisional Government and leaving all political power to the Soviets.
In December, the Bolsheviks signed an armistice with the Central Powersthough by Februaryfighting had resumed.
A long and bloody Civil War ensued between the Reds and the Whitesstarting in and ending in with the Reds' victory. It included foreign interventionthe execution of the former tsar and his familyand the famine ofwhich killed about five million people. Soviet Russia had to resolve similar conflicts with the newly established republics of FinlandEstoniaLatviaand Lithuania. The formal proclamation was made from the stage of the Bolshoi Theatre. An intensive restructuring of the economy, industry and politics of the country began in the early days of Soviet power in A large part Sesso Russia 2014 this was done according to the Bolshevik Initial Decreesgovernment documents signed by Vladimir Lenin.
One of the most prominent breakthroughs was the GOELRO planwhich envisioned a major restructuring of the Soviet economy based on total electrification of the country. From its creation, the government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communist Party Bolsheviks.
The debate over the future of the economy provided the background for a power struggle in the years after Lenin's death Sesso Russia 2014 The same year, a Soviet Constitution was approved, legitimizing the December union. Lenin had appointed Stalin the head of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectoratewhich gave Stalin considerable power.
By gradually consolidating his influence and isolating and outmanoeuvring his rivals within the partyStalin became the undisputed leader of the country and, by the end of the s, established a totalitarian rule. InStalin introduced the first five-year plan for building a socialist economy. In place of the internationalism expressed by Lenin throughout the Revolution, it aimed to build Socialism Sesso Russia 2014 One Country.
In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. In agriculturerather than adhering to the "lead by example" policy advocated by Lenin,  forced collectivization of farms was implemented all over the country. Famines ensued as a result, causing deaths estimated at three to seven million; Sesso Russia 2014 kulaks were Sesso Russia 2014, and many were sent to Gulags to do forced labor.
Despite the Sesso Russia 2014 of the mid-to-late s, the country developed a robust industrial economy in Sesso Russia 2014 years preceding World War II.
From tothe country participated in the World Disarmament Conference. Roosevelt, chose to recognize Stalin's Communist government formally and negotiated a new trade agreement between the two countries.
On DecemberStalin unveiled a new constitution that was praised by supporters around the world as the most democratic constitution imaginable, though there were some skepticism. Stalin's Great Purge resulted in the detainment or execution of many " Old Sesso Russia 2014 " who had participated in the October Revolution with Lenin. According Sesso Russia 2014 declassified Soviet archives, the NKVD arrested more than one and a Sesso Russia 2014 million people in andof whomwere shot. Inthe Soviet Union made a dramatic shift toward Nazi Germany.
Almost a year after Britain and France Sesso Russia 2014 concluded the Munich Agreement with Germany, the Soviet Union made agreements with Sesso Russia 2014 as well, both militarily and economically during extensive talks. In the east, the Soviet military won several decisive victories during border clashes with the Empire of Japan in and The Red Army stopped the seemingly invincible German Army at the Battle of Moscowaided by an unusually harsh winter.
The Battle of Stalingradwhich lasted from late to earlydealt a severe blow to Germany from which they Sesso Russia 2014 fully recovered and became a turning point in the war. The USSR suffered greatly Sesso Russia 2014 the war, losing around 27 million people. Once denied diplomatic recognition by the Western world, the USSR had official relations with practically every country by the late s.
A member of the United Nations at its foundation inthe country became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Councilwhich gave it the right to veto any of its resolutions.
During the immediate post-war period, the Soviet Union rebuilt and expanded its economy, while maintaining its strictly centralized control. It took effective control over most of the countries of Eastern Europe except Yugoslavia and later Albaniaturning them into satellite states. It also instituted trading arrangements deliberately designed to favor the country.
Moscow controlled the Communist parties that ruled the satellite states, and they followed orders from the Kremlin. Fearing its ambitions, the Soviet Union's wartime allies, the United Kingdom and the United States, became its enemies. In the ensuing Cold Warthe two sides clashed indirectly in proxy wars. Stalin died on 5 March Without a mutually agreeable successor, the highest Communist Party officials initially opted to rule the Soviet Union jointly through a troika headed by Sesso Russia 2014 Malenkov.
This did not last, however, and Nikita Khrushchev eventually won the ensuing power struggle by the mids. Inhe denounced Stalin's use of repression and Sesso Russia 2014 to Sesso Russia 2014 controls over the party and society.
This was known as Sesso Russia 2014. Moscow considered Eastern Europe to be a critically vital buffer zone for the forward defence of its western borders, in case of another major invasion such as the German invasion of For this reason, the USSR sought to cement its control of the region by transforming the Eastern European countries into satellite states, dependent upon and subservient to its leadership.
Soviet military force was used to suppress anti-Stalinist uprisings in Hungary and Poland in In the late s, a confrontation with China regarding the Soviet rapprochement with the West, and what Mao Zedong perceived as Khrushchev's revisionismled to the Sino—Soviet split. This resulted in Sesso Russia 2014 break throughout the global Marxist—Leninist movement, with the governments in AlbaniaCambodia and Somalia choosing to ally with China. During this period of the late s and early s, the USSR continued to realize scientific and technological exploits in the Space Racerivaling the United States: launching the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 in ; a living dog named Laika in ; the first human being, Yuri Gagarin in ; the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova in ; Alexei Leonovthe first person to walk in space in ; the first soft landing on the Moon by spacecraft Luna 9 in ; and the first Moon rovers, Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2.
Khrushchev initiated " The Thaw ", a complex shift in political, cultural and economic life in the country. This included some openness and contact with other nations and new social and economic policies with more emphasis on commodity goods, allowing a dramatic rise in living standards while maintaining Sesso Russia 2014 levels of economic growth.
Censorship was relaxed as well. Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration, however, were generally unproductive. Inhe precipitated a crisis with the United States over the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. An agreement was made with the United States to remove nuclear missiles Sesso Russia 2014 both Cuba and Turkey Sesso Russia 2014, concluding the crisis.
This event caused Khrushchev much embarrassment and Sesso Russia 2014 of prestige, resulting in Sesso Russia 2014 removal from power in Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of collective leadership ensued, consisting of Leonid Brezhnev as General Secretary, Alexei Kosygin as Premier and Nikolai Podgorny as Chairman of the Presidium, lasting until Brezhnev established himself in the early s as the preeminent Soviet leader.