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Putin's Cover Up Of The Kursk Submarine Disaster (2002)

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Throughout the entire course of the foreign occupation, the territory of Poland was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union USSR with the intention of eradicating Polish culture and subjugating its people by occupying German and Soviet powers.

Both occupying powers were hostile to the existence of sovereign PolandPolish peopleand the Polish culture aiming at their destruction. Around 6 million Polish citizens—nearly After Germany and the Soviet Union had partitioned Poland insesso video Kursk of the ethnically Polish territory ended up under the sesso video Kursk of Germany, while the areas annexed by the Soviet Union contained ethnically diverse peoples, with the territory split into bilingual provinces, some of which had large ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian minorities.

Nonetheless Poles comprised the largest sesso video Kursk ethnic group in all territories annexed by the Soviet Union. By the end of the invasion the Soviet Union had taken over There were alsorefugees who fled from areas occupied by Germany, most of them Sesso video KurskFor months prior to the beginning of World War II inGerman newspapers and leaders had carried out a national and international propaganda campaign accusing Polish authorities of organizing or tolerating violent ethnic cleansing of ethnic Germans living in Poland.

Kennard sent four sesso video Kursk in August to Viscount Halifax regarding Hitler's claims about the treatment Germans were receiving in Poland; he came to the conclusion all the claims by Hitler and the Nazis were exaggerations or false claims. Those plans began to be implemented almost immediately after the German troops took control of Poland. Sesso video Kursk early as Octobermany Poles were expelled from the annexed lands to make room for German colonizers.

The expulsions continued inwith another 45, Poles forced to move eastwards, but following the German invasion of the Soviet Unionthe expulsions slowed down, as more and more trains were diverted for military logistics, rather than being made available for population transfers.

The Nazi plans also called for Poland's 3. Further, the populace of occupied territories was to be relegated to the role of an unskilled labour-force for German-controlled industry and agriculture. After Germany lost the war, the International Military Tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials and Poland's Supreme National Tribunal concluded that the aim of German policies in Poland — the extermination of Poles and Jews — had "all the characteristics of genocide in the biological meaning of this term.

The German People's List Deutsche Volksliste classified the willing Polish citizens into four groups of people with ethnic Germanic heritage. Group 2 included those ethnic Germans who had not taken such an active part, but had "preserved" their German characteristics. Group 3 included individuals of alleged German stock who had become "Polonized", but whom it was believed, could be won back to Germany. This group also included persons of non-German descent married to Germans or members of non-Polish groups who were considered desirable for their political sesso video Kursk and racial characteristics.

Group 4 consisted of persons sesso video Kursk German stock who had become politically merged with the Poles. After registration in the List, individuals from Groups 1 and 2 automatically became German citizens. Those from Group 3 acquired German citizenship subject to revocation. Those from Group 4 received German citizenship through naturalization proceedings; resistance sesso video Kursk Germanization constituted treason because "German blood must not be utilized in the interest of a foreign nation," and such people were sent to concentration camps.

One of the attempts to divide the Polish nation was a creation of a new ethnicity called " Goralenvolk ". In a top-secret memorandum, "The Treatment of Racial Aliens in the East", dated 25 MayHeinrich Himmlerhead of the SSwrote: "We need to divide the East's different ethnic groups up into as many parts and splinter groups as possible".

Almost immediately after the invasion, Germans began forcibly conscripting laborers. Jews were drafted to repair war damage as early as October, with women and children 12 or older required to work; shifts could take half a day and with little compensation.

Forced labourers were subject to harsh discriminatory measures. Announced on the 8 March was the Polish decrees which were used as a legal basis for foreign labourers in Germany. Labor shortages in the German war economy became critical especially after German defeat in the battle of Stalingrad in — This led to the increased use of prisoners as forced labourers in German industries.

Auschwitz received the first contingent of Poles on 14 Junetransferred from an overcrowded prison at Tarnów. Within a year the Polish inmate population was in sesso video Kursk, and begun to be exterminated, including in the first gassing experiment in September About 30, Poles died at Mauthausen sesso video Kursk, 20, at Sachsenhausen and Gross-Rosen each, 17, at Neuengamme and Ravensbrueck each, 10, at Dachauand tens of thousands perished in other camps and prisons. Sesso video Kursk the invasion of Poland in most of the approximately 3.

The ghetto system was unsustainable, as by the end of the Jews had no savings left to pay sesso video Kursk SS for food deliveries and no chance to sesso video Kursk their own keep. Nazi Germany engaged in a concentrated effort to destroy Polish culture. To that end, numerous cultural and educational institutions were closed or destroyed, from schools and universities, through monuments and libraries, to laboratories and museums. Many employees of said institutions were arrested and executed as part wider persecutions of Polish intellectual elite.

Schooling of Polish children was curtailed to a few years of elementary education, as outlined by Himmler's May memorandum: "The sole goal of this schooling is to teach them simple arithmetic, nothing above the number ; writing one's name; and sesso video Kursk doctrine that it is divine law to obey the Germans.

I do not think that reading is desirable". Proscription lists Sonderfahndungsbuch Polenprepared before the war started, identified more than 61, Polish elite and intelligentsia leaders deemed as unfriendly towards Germany.

The Nazis also persecuted the Catholic Church in Poland and other, smaller religions. Nazi policy towards the Church was sesso video Kursk its most severe in the territories it annexed to Greater Germany, where they set about systematically dismantling the Church — arresting its leaders, exiling its sesso video Kursk, closing its churches, monasteries and convents.

Many clergymen and nuns were murdered or sesso video Kursk to concentration and labor camps. The entirety of the Protestant clergy of the Cieszyn region of Silesia were arrested and deported to concentration camps at Mauthausen, BuchenwaldDachau and Oranienburg. In the territories annexed to Nazi Germanyin particular with regards to the westernmost incorporated territories—the so-called Wartheland — the Nazis aimed for a complete " Germanization ", i.

Sesso video Kursk manner of Polish enterprises, up to small shops, were taken over, with prior owners rarely compensated. The Nazis kept an eye sesso video Kursk for Polish children who possessed Nordic racial characteristics. At least 4, children were given new German names, [75] forbidden to use Polish language, [76] and reeducated in Nazi institutions.

Those deemed as unsuitable for Germanization for being "not Aryan enough" were sent to orphanages or even to concentration camps like Auschwitz, where many perished, often killed by intercardiac injections of phenol. Despite the military defeat of the Polish Army in Septemberthe Polish government itself never surrendered, instead evacuating West, where it formed the Polish government in Exile. These institutions included the police, the courtsand schools. In response to the occupation, Poles formed one of the largest underground movements in Europe.

In the beginning ofit had reached a strength of aboutIn the summer of when Operation Tempest begun AK reached its highest membership numbers. Estimates of AK membership in the first half of and summer that year vary, with aboutbeing common. The uprising, receiving little assistance from the nearby Soviet sesso video Kursk, eventually failed, significantly reducing the Home Army's power and position.

The Polish civilian population suffered under German occupation in many ways. Large numbers were expelled from land intended for German colonisation, and forced to resettle in the General-Government area. Hundreds of thousands of Poles were deported to Germany for forced labour in industry and agriculture, where many thousands died. Poles were also conscripted for labour in Poland, and were held in labour camps all over the country, again with a high death rate. There was a general shortage of food, fuel for heating and medical supplies, and there was sesso video Kursk high death rate among the Polish population as a result.

Finally, thousands of Poles were killed as reprisals for resistance attacks on German forces or for other reasons. Poland had a large Jewish population, and according to Davies, more Jews were both killed and rescued in Poland, than in any other nation, the rescue figure usually being put at betweenandThe organisation saved thousands. Emphasis was placed on protecting children, as it was nearly impossible to intervene directly against the heavily guarded transports.

The Germans implemented several different laws to separate Poles and Jews in the ghettos with Poles living on the "Aryan Side" and the Jews living on the "Jewish Side", despite the risk of death many Poles risked their lives by forging "Aryan Papers" for Jews to make them appear as non-Jewish Poles so they could live on the Aryan sesso video Kursk and avoid Nazi persecution. Some three million Polish citizens perished during the course of the war, over two million of whom were ethnic Poles the remainder sesso video Kursk mostly Ukrainians and Belarusians.

The vast majority of those killed were civilians, mostly killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Aside from being sent to Nazi concentration campsmost ethnic Poles died through shelling and bombing campaigns, mass executions, forced starvation, revenge murder, ill health, and slave labour. Along with Auschwitz II-Birkenauthe main six extermination camps in occupied Poland were used predominantly sesso video Kursk exterminate Jews. Stutthof concentration camp was used for mass extermination of Poles.

A number of civilian labour camps Gemeinschaftslager for Poles Polenlager were established inside Polish territory. Many Poles died in German camps. The first non-German prisoners at Auschwitz were Poles who were the majority of inmates there until when the systematic killing of the Jews began.

The first killing by poison gas at Auschwitz involved Poles and Soviet prisoners of war. Many Poles and other Central and Eastern Europeans were also sent to concentration camps in Germany: over 35, sesso video Kursk Dachau33, to the camp for women at Ravensbrück30, to Mauthausen and 20, to Sachsenhausen. The population in the General Government's territory was initially about 12 million in an area of 94, square kilometres, but this increased as aboutPoles and Jews were expelled from the German-annexed areas and "resettled" in the General Government.

Offsetting this was the German campaign of extermination of the Polish intelligentsia and other elements thought likely to resist e. Operation Tannenberg. Fromdisease and hunger also began to reduce the population. Poles were deported in large numbers to work as forced labour in Germany: eventually about a million were deported, and many died in Sesso video Kursk. The estimates vary; Prof. There were alsorefugees from areas occupied by Germany, most of them JewsInitially the Soviet occupation gained support among some members of the linguistic minorities who had chafed under the nationalist policies of the Second Polish Republic.

Much of the Ukrainian population initially welcomed the unification with the Soviet Ukraine because twenty years earlier their attempt at self-determination failed during both the Polish—Ukrainian War and the Ukrainian—Soviet War. There were large groups of prewar Sesso video Kursk citizens, notably Jewish youth and, to a lesser extent, the Ukrainian peasants, sesso video Kursk saw the Soviet power as an opportunity to start political or social activity outside their traditional ethnic or cultural groups.

Their enthusiasm however faded with time as it became clear that the Soviet repressions were aimed at all groups equally, regardless of their political stance.

British historian Simon Sebag Montefiore states that Soviet terror in the occupied eastern Polish lands was as cruel and tragic as the Nazis' in the west. The Soviets also executed about 65, Poles. Soldiers of the Red Army and their officers behaved like conquerors, looting and stealing Polish treasures. When Stalin was told about it, he answered: "If there is no ill will, sesso video Kursk [the soldiers] can be pardoned". In one notorious massacre, the NKVD-the Soviet secret police—systematically sesso video Kursk 21, Poles, among them 14, former Polish officers, including political leaders, government officials, and intellectuals.

Some 4, of these were uncovered in mass graves in Katyn Forest by the Nazis in sesso video Kursk, who then invited an international group of neutral representatives and doctors to study sesso video Kursk corpses and confirm Soviet guilt, but the findings from the study were denounced by the Allies as "Nazi propaganda".

The Soviet Union had ceased to recognize the Polish state at the start of the invasion. The Soviets therefore did not classify Polish military prisoners as prisoners of war but as rebels against the new legal government of Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia. The Poles and the Soviets re-established diplomatic relations in sesso video Kursk, following the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement ; but the Soviets broke them off again in after the Polish government demanded an independent examination of the recently discovered Katyn burial pits.

They moved Sesso video Kursk into the Soviet sphere of influence and shifted the border in Poland to the east, giving Sesso video Kursk more territory.